Dark matter, why so expensive?


 You know that new things invented every day. Scientists discover not only things but also new space objects. This is due to improved technology. As you know, technology is improving day by day. Space scientists and space engineers work to find the secrets of the space. I am sure that they can’t put a full stop to this work. Do you know the reason? There are so many hidden secrets in outer space. Scientists can investigate very far from the earth with the development of technology. Therefore they send spacecraft and astronauts to a very long distance and find details. Today I am expecting to tell you about the discovery of scientists through space. 

The hypothetical particle axion

    Scientists are a success in the investigation of the axion. They found some traces of these axions. What are these axions? Think about that. Have you got an idea? This was a hypothetical elementary particle for many years. The discovery is that the scientists have found some evidence of that particular particle that can prove this hypothesis is real. This particle was first hypotheses by Roberto Peccei and Helen Quinn in 1977. Axions are symbolised as A0. There are two forms of the mechanism of axions. They are as KSVZ and DFSZ. KSVZ is referring to Kim Shifman Vainshtein Zakharov as well as that DFSZ is referring to the Dine Fischler Srednicki Zhitnitsky. 

  The mass of an axion is about 10-5 to 10 – 3. The electric charge is 0. This is a mass of 10-11 of an electron. With this mass, it has named as dark matters. 

Maxwell’s theorem and other experiments

Peirre put forward a way to find axioms. It is as follows. He showed a way to find axions on the surface of the earth. It is associated with Maxwell’s equation. He said that actions could be turned into photons with a strong magnetic field. Through the ADMX way, solar axions may be turned in to the x rays.some of the types of axions search by Primakoff effect. They tested it with the astrophysical axions. This is a way that can be used to convert axions to photons in a magnetic field. In other than that. As well as that axions can be produced within the sun’s core with x rays. There are other ways. Axions may be produced within neutron stars. 

  Here I said some ways to detect axions. But there are many possible ways. In 2013 Christian Beck said that axions could be found in Josephson junctions. After that, in 2016, MIT decides a way to detect axions. That is through a strong magnetic field. The University of Washington tried to solve this. They used a strong magnetic field to the conversion of axions into the microwaves. 

 Properties of axions

  There is an idea that these are made out after the big bang theory. There is another type of axions. It is called as hot axions. How are these formed? These are formed through scattering with the other particles in a thermal bath. Low mass axions are another type of axions. If they are falling into galaxies, the caustic rings are reduced.

 There are some predictions about axions. Those said that there is no electric charge, low interaction to the strong and weak forces. There is another prediction about the mass. The mass of axion can be in a range of 10-6 to 1 eV. In other than that there is a theory about the axions. It is the supersymmetric theory. That theory said that axions have a scalar and fermionic superpartners. Fermionic Super partner of the axion is axino while the scalar superpartner is dilaton or the saxion. 

 Finally, you know that this is a type of dark matter. Why is this called as a dark matter? This is known as the lightest supersymmetric particle. Therefore it is called as a dark matter. 

 Through the here above paragraphs, I told you about the axions. It would be better for your knowledge of space science. If you read the above carefully, you have noticed that the word dark matter. What are those black matters? Would you like to know that? 

Dark matters

   These are the type of matter present in the space. Dark matter consists of 85% of the total mass. Dark matters made out of subatomic particles. From those subatomic particles. Some of them are undiscovered. Why are these matters called as dark matters? Do you have an idea? These are called dark because it doesn’t accompany any reactions with the electromagnetic radiation. For example, consider the light. I know there is another word along with the dark matters. It is dark energy. What is dark energy? 

Dark energy

  27% of dark matter and 68 % of unknown energy is called as the dark energy. Earlier I told you the mass of dark matter is about 85%. But totally 95% of mass-energy content in dark energy with the dark matter. 

  We can observe dark matters through our eyes, but the scientists are sure about these dark matters. Cold dark matter, warm dark matters and hot dark matter are categories of dark matters. It was categories according to the free streaming length. We can explain the dark matter in other ways. Dark matters are objects that are not visible yet. Other than that, these name dark matters only use for the non-baryonic component of the matter. There are other unsolved questions. What are the components in the dark matters? We know that it can be composed of non-baryonic matter. But protons and neutrons take part in this to make black matters. Protons and neutrons are some detected baryonic matter. Do you know about the baryonic matter? 

 Baryonic matter

   Stars and planets are made out of these matters as well as that baryonic matter takes part in the massive compact halo objects. White dwarfs, brown dwarfs and black holes are some examples for massive small halo objects. Later scientists found that the dark matters are not made out of baryonic matter with evidence. I am not expecting to tell all the evidence through my article. 

   However, scientists have found evidence of some axions. It says the dark matters are not hypothesis things. We thought that axions as the only particles but as this discovery, it acts as a wave of electrons in supercooled material that is calling as a semimetal. 

  These are very difficult to detect using telescopes. And these neutral particles do not interact with ordinary matter. Scientists try those experiments with the condensed matter. Therefore they have worked with strange and unique material. This material is Weyl Semimetal. The significance of this material is electrons are behaving as they have no mass. Other than that they don’t have any interaction with each other. Electrons can be allowed to interact by cooling this semimetal into 12 degrees Fahrenheit. Some waves are travelling through the crystals that the waves are called phonons.

    So one type of black matter discovered. I think like that above discovery. We can expect there are some more discoveries in the future. The technology is developing day by day as well as that the discoveries are increasing day by day too. 


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