New scientific discoveries within 2019 part I


I know that you also very much like science. Even I am like that. I like much more space science. You understand that space scientific engineers and those space companies, including NASA and Spacex, are conducting experiments to achieve several tasks. Some of their main goals are colonisation Mars, investigation of Jupiter, researching about Interstellar objects and about the dark matter that is still unknown. This is November of 2019. And these are the last few days of this year 2019.

As you know, scientists had found many discoveries within 2019. Now, I would like to tell you about some of them. My main topics are as follows. 

  •     Chang’s four mission landed a rover on the moon. 
  •       The New Horizon spacecraft flew away about 4 billion miles from the earth that passing large object. 
  •     A Japanese spacecraft landed on the surface of an asteroid. 
  •     Voyager 2 spacecraft left from our milky way galaxy and entered to Interstellar space. 
  •     Finding of Marsquakes. 
  •     Finding another planet away from the earth. 
  •     Horizon telescopes team got a picture of a black hole. 
  •     Another black hole near a neutron star. 
  •     SpaceX launched Crew Dragon spaceship successfully to space. 
  •     Scientists succeeded in using solar power to a spacecraft.

Through these above points, I told you about the most exciting discoveries in the space field. Now, I like to give brief information one by one. 

Chang’s four rovers landed on the moon of the part that we cannot see with our naked eye.

    There was no any other spaceship landed on the moon that Chang’4 rovers landed. This is the fourth robotic mission of china. The name of this rover is some bit differ. What do you think about the name itself? It is the name of a mythical goddess. Chang’s rover landed on the South Pole-Aitken Basin. 

    Chang’s four rover

 This is a part of a robotic mission. This rover landed on the moon on the 3rd of January 2019. This is the second phase of the Chinese Lunar program. There are some objectives from this launching. Some of them are, 

  •  To study about cosmic rays
  •  To measure the chemical composition of soils and lunar rocks. 
  •  Observe the solar corona and to investigate about the coronal mass ejection. 
  •  To measure lunar surface temperature 

There are two microsatellites in this river. Longjiang – 1and Longjiang – 2 are those two satellites. These microsatellites are made to observe the sky at low frequencies. Frequencies are at the range 1 – 30 megahertz. And the wavelength range is 300-10 meters. Scientists made this to use a few years. 

 You know that there are payloads in the spaceships. The following payloads are with the Lunar lander. 

  •  Low-frequency spectrometer – to hear the solar radio bursts within the frequency of 0.1-40 MHz. 
  •  Landing Camera – can video the landing surface. 
  •  Terrain camera-to video lunar surface and the rover
  •  Lunar lander neutrons and Dosimetry-to gather radiation dosimetry. This part is the production of a Kiel University in Germany. 
  •  Lunar micro-ecosystem – this is a cylinder about 3kg in its mass. This is to check that plants and microorganisms can grow in a synergy. Cottonseed, potato, rapeseed are some organisms within it. 
  • Those above are about the lunar lander. Now I would like to talk about 
  •  Lunar penetrating radar-this is ground-penetrating radar. 
  •  Panoramic camera- can get 3D visions with binocular stereo vision. 
  •  Advanced small analyser for neutrals – this is an energetic neutral atom analyser. 

Those above details are about the chang’s spaceship. You know that this probe is from china

We can expect some more in the space field from China in the future. Our next topic is, 

New Horizon spacecraft passed a massive object that is far away as 4 miles from the earth. 

   New Horizon took hundreds of photographs while it is travelling at a speed of 32,000 miles per hour. This astronomical object is the fastest object that humans were visited throughout the early years. This object was named as MU69. The nickname of this object is the Arrokoth. It means the sky. In here we have to about the spacecraft new horizon mostly. 

     New Horizon

  This was launched on the 19th of January 2006. As well as that this was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force station. This was the farthest object made by man. In New Horizon spacecraft even though there are some significant parts. They are the payloads. That is as follows. 

  •     Solar wind around pluto – this is a potential retarding analyser and a toroidal electrostatic analyser. 
  •     Pluto Energetic Particle spectrometer science Investigation – this is a sensor that can measure the time of flight ion and electron. 
  •     Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer 
  •     Ralph telescope 
  •     Solar wind around pluto

What are the scientific payloads? 

 The main goal through this spacecraft is to investigate the formation by Plutonian system and the Kuiper belt. Other than that, scientists tried to focus this investigation towards the Charon. 

Now we can move to our next topic. 

Japanese spacecraft that landed on the surface of an asteroid

      This asteroid is named as Raghu. Hayabusa – 2 arrived at Ryugu on June 2018. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency launched this probe. Hayabusa made a hole in the asteroid surface. What is the reason for making a hole? That is to collect samples for deep within the space rock. 

  Now we can see about the Ryugu and the Hayabusa. 

Ryugu asteroid

       This is an asteroid of the Apollo group. Hayabusa 2 arrived at Ryugu in June 2018 after that it left from Ryugu in November 2019. I want to tell you about some characteristics of Ryugu.

 This has an eccentricity level of 0.19. And 95400 is the minimum orbital intersection with the earth. It has an effective diameter of 0.85-0.88 kilometres. When we talked about the physical features, there are about 13 known features. Some of them are the craters, Dorsa, fossae and saxa. Now I think I have to change my topic towards the side of Hayabusa 2.

   Hayabusa – 2

   You know that this is the spacecraft used to investigate Ryugu. I know that you also like to know more about this spacecraft. This is a mission by Japan. As we know this left Ryugu in 2019. Therefore this is expected to come to earth in 2020. 

 When compared with the early Hayabusa, this is improved. This has new navigation techniques, antennas and attitude control systems as improved features. As well as that I have to say about the science payload. The following are those science payloads. 

  •     Sampling-camera, small impactor and a sampling device. 
  •     Remote sensing – thermal infrared camera, optical navigation camera and light detection and ranging
  •     Four rovers – rover 1A, rover 1B, rover two and mobile asteroid surface scout. 

Now I tell you more details about this Hayabusa project. Then we will move to our next topic. 

Voyager 2 spacecraft entered the Interstellar space. 

  We know about the Interstellar space. Now you can have an idea about the Voyager 2 spacecraft through my article. 

    Voyager – 2

  This 8th creation of NASA. This was launched on the 20th of August 1977. The mission of this spacecraft is to investigate about the outer space. This spacecraft visited Uranus and Neptune both ice giants. Scientists thought that this would be entering Interstellar space in about 2016. It came Interstellar space on the 5th of November 2018.

 Other than that these spacecraft consist of a particular part. It is called a gold record. It is a gold plated audiovisual disk. This has more critical information about a wide range of precise details. 

  From my article, I gave you knowledge about unknown some discoveries. Here I described only 4 of them. I want to express the other six discoveries through my next article. and other six discoveries are… read the second part for more info.


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