Have you read my first article? It is the discoveries of 2019, the first part. If you didn’t read that now, please read it for clear understanding. I am sure that you will read this after reading the first part. However, I am going to explain about six main topics under this central topic. They are as follows.
- Finding of marsquakes.
- Finding another planet away from the Earth.
- Horizon telescopes team got a picture of a black hole.
- Another black hole near a neutron star.
- SpaceX launched Crew Dragon spaceship successfully to space.
- Scientists succeeded in using solar power to a spaceship.
Therefore I think now it’s time to start talking about these discoveries.
Finding of the Marsquakes.
You all know about the Planet Mars. You understand that this is a planet in our Milky Way galaxy. But I think if I don’t tell about Mars in here, that the article is incomplete.
This planet a tiny planet, but it is larger than the Mercury. Therefore Mars is the second smallest planet in the solar system. Also, this is the fourth planet from the sun. Mars is known as the red planet. Why did people call as the red planet to the mars? Do you know? It is because of the rusty iron on the ground of Mars. Therefore we can see Mars as in reddish colour. That is the reason to call Mars as the red planet. The landmass of Mars and the Earth is similar. The sun is visible to Mars as the size of half than it can be visible on the Earth.
- In other than that there are solid dust particles in Mars than the dust particles on other planets.
- Those are some necessary details of Mars. Now we have to see who found the quakes on Mars.
InSight Lander found out the quakes on Mars. NASA made this Insight Lander probe. This was landed on Mars in November of 2018. The first quake on Mars found out in April 2019. Until now they have found about 21 quakes. I think to tell you about some more about the InSight Lander probe.
InSight lander probe.
This launched from the Earth on the 5th of May 2018. The mission of this probe is to investigate Mars. InSight lander made using robotic technology. Do you know the meaning by InSight? InSight is using the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport. The designer of this creation is Lockheed Martin.
So I gave you some brief knowledge about the InSight Lander and the planet Mars.
Finding a new planet that is far away from the Earth.
You know that the essential factor for the existence of living beings is the water. If there is water, human and animal can live in that place. Scientists had found a planet with water. But it is water vapour. Scientists found that planet in September of this year. They named this planet as K2-18b.
Now we will see more about the planet K2-18b.
This has a mass about eight times the Earth. Hence, this is known as Super-Earth. This is a red dwarf. EPIC 201912552b is another way that can identify this planet.
Those above are the necessary details about K2-18b. Then we should focus on our other topic.
Horizon telescopes team got a picture of a black hole.
This photo shows a black hole at the centre of Messier 87 galaxy. Scientists discovered that the mass of this planet is equivalent to 6.5 billion suns. Messier 87 galaxy is 54 million light-years away from the Earth. Scientists dreamed of taking a photo of a black hole through a camera for many years. Finally, their dream came true. This photograph likes as a “dark spheres surrounded by a glowing ring of light “.
This is about the photograph. Now you can read about the Messier 87 galaxy. But before that, you have to get an idea about a black hole.
What is a black hole?
This is a place where that gravitational acceleration is so strong. There is no particle, or electromagnetic radiation can escape from this strong gravitational acceleration.
Messier 87 galaxy
This is for approximately 53.49 light-years from the Earth. This galaxy has a large population of globular clusters. This is in the constellation Virgo as well as that this is such a supergiant elliptical galaxy. It has a radius of about 60 light-years. This is some short description of the Messier 87 galaxy. Our next topic is.
Another black hole near a neutron star.
Before seeing the description, you have to identify the meaning of the topic itself. Earlier I described to you about the black hole. Then only you have to see what is a Neutron Star. What is a neutron star?
These are some small stars except than the black holes. The radius of this is about 10 kilometres, and the mass is about 1.4 solar masses. These are formed through the supernova explosion of the stars. After they interact with the gravitational collapse. This is about the neutron star.
In August scientists discovered a collision between a neutron star and a black hole. After the crash, they formed ripples in space-time. Even they are called as the gravitational waves. The waves passed the Earth in this time also. They can be detected with the gravitational wave detectors. Through this, the scientists had found a black hole that is near to a neutron star.
Now we will move to our next topic. That is,
SpaceX launched Crew Dragon spaceship successfully to space.
You know that SpaceX is a private American company that had involved in the space science field. The chief of this company is Elon Musk. SpaceX was originated in 2002. Their main target is to colonisation in Mars. Therefore they are conducting various experiments for making rockets.
Then we have to talk about crew dragon.
This is a reusable rocket. Other than crew dragon this is known as dragon 2. This was initially launched on the 2nd of March 2019. There are some differences between Dragon 2 from the dragon. Dragon 2 has new redesigned solar arrays, modern computing systems and as well as has a modified outer mould line. This is made to travel to outer space as a space trip.
Within the 2019 year, SpaceX has completed the launching of Crew Dragon to space.
Now we have to discuss our last topic. It is,
Scientists succeeded in using solar power to a spaceship.
This is a developed technology. Earlier fuels needed for the start of a rocket. Because of that as a solution, scientists made new rockets to travel using its energy source. So they use solar panels to the rockets to produce solar power within the rocket. Lightsail 2 is such type of rocket.
The energy is produced with the reflected rays. This is a project of the Planetary Society. Lightsail has two spacecraft as the Lightsail one and Lightsail 2.
The total budget for this work is about US$ 7 million. There are about 40,000 donors that participated in the programme.
The spacecraft Lightsail 1 launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida on 20th May 2015 and reentered the Earth one 14th June 2015. Then the second spacecraft Lightsail 2 launched on the 25th of June 2019, and it will reenter Earth’s atmosphere after about a one year.
This is the ending of my article. I wrote here about the most famous discoveries within 2019. There are many investigations will add to this list. There are too many such investigations, but I selected only 10. We can expect some more within this year with this latest technology.