What is Tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top death causing disease in the world. TB counted more than 1.5 million deaths in the year 2018. TB is an infection spread by a bacteria named Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which affects lungs first in the human body and next spread to the spine and brain. Year 2018 recorded deaths of 251000 Childs and 1.1 million kids aged up to fourteen infected by TB. This disease spread through the air, commonly through cough, spit or sneeze of an infected person. Symptoms of TB are cough, weight loss, fever, night sweats and chest pain.
TB disease spread in every part of the world and the highest rated TB patients are found from African, South East Asia and Western pacific. TB patients are mostly found in countries such as China, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Philippines and South Africa. World Health organization (WHO) aim is to end Tuberculosis from the globe by year 2030.
TB vaccine development?
TB is a disease which can be treated and cured with treatments. In year 2017 over 10 million new TB influenced people were found and 1.6 million of them died from it. Vaccination is the treatment for TB. For the first time in year 1890 Mr. Robert Koch found Immunotherapy as a treatment for TB. The vaccination process improved with latest innovation in science and technology. This innovation of technology helps in protecting more number of people who effected from TB.
Bacilli Chalmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination introduced in year 1921. BCG vaccine is one of the most popular and present used vaccine by most of the countries. BCG vaccine comes along with some other benefits for immunity system to lower the risk of having other infections and atopic diseases. BCG vaccine is most of the time given to children and infants in the countries which are more likely to have TB patients. But United States didn’t use BCG vaccine method in their country.
BCG vaccine is given to child at their birth to fight against the TB bacteria and young kids and infants are also vaccine with BCG to protect them against TB bacteria. The drawback of the study is that adults and adolescents are not protected through BCG. The issue is that highest number of TB patients are from the adult age category. Adults effected from TB bacteria in lungs which is a major issue related to TB are not protected through BCG vaccine.
A new vaccination to protect both the young crowd along with adult crowd is important to save many lives effected from TB. One of the most effective medication to cure many health issues are Vaccination. Vaccination is an essential solution to cure TB bacteria.
Latest vaccine for TB?
The latest vaccine method for TB is M72/AS01E. This vaccine was able to save up to 50% of lives infected from TB bacteria. M72/AS01E vaccination tested before a year ago. The world health organization recognized this vaccine as a huge achievement in science. The latest vaccine method resulted more positively than the BCG vaccine method.
The head of world health organization from year 2003 to 2017 Dr.Mario C. Raviglione also positively comment about the latest vaccine method. Pharmaceutical company named Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) introduced M72/AS01E. These vaccines contain M72 which is immunogenic protein derived from Mycobacterium and antigens with adjuvant.
The new vaccine tested with 3575 number of participants. Participants belongs to age category between 18 and 50. All these participants are HIV negative. The study conducted in South Africa, Zambia and Kenya with follow-up of two years. The purpose of this test was to see the effectiveness of this vaccine against TB disease bacteria. Every participant was vaccine with M72/AS01E or placebo 2 dose. 3573 participant vaccine with M72/AS01E or at least one drop of placebo and 3330 participant of this test received both M72/AS01E dose and placebo.
There is no well explain mechanism how this vaccine work to protect people against TB. This vaccine active interferon-gamma producing cells with its ingredients and it generate antibodies. The results of the vaccine reveled in year 2018. Which resulted with a milestone in the medicine industry resulting 54% efficient in reducing the level of activating TB disease of the participants who are HIV negative and latent TB infection participants. According to the follow-up done in two years with 32 participants, 10 of them who are vaccine with M72/AS01E resulted active TB pulmonary development and 22 number of participants in the group of placebo 2 dose resulted with active TB pulmonary development.
The director of immunization vaccine and Biologic in WHO Dr. Martin Friede commented that this vaccine brings the medicine science one step closer to end the TB disease from the world. Dr. Nazir Ismai from South Africa who is the chief in tuberculosis research in South Africa National Institute commentated this new vaccine is reasonably good.
Dr. Tereze Kasaeva who is the director of world health organization TB programme commented and congratulated GSK and its partner Aeras for brining positive result to lower the TB patients from the world and increase health level and save more lives threaten by TB bacteria. Dr. Lalita Ramakrishna who is an expert in the field of tuberculosis commented that the survival from the new vaccine will be the people in normal circumstances. The vaccine must test for the other people also.
In the new vaccine method patients only have to take two shots for a month other than taking medicine daily. Vaccine followed up for two to three years until now. Follow up also have to done for the period beyond three years to see the long term of new TB vaccine treatment. The result of the vaccine M72/AS01E protect the TB disease patients for at least 3 years because above 3 years are not yet followed up. Both pre and post expose to TB bacteria people use the new vaccine M72/AS01E vaccines. This result saving 1.7 billion People affected from TB bacteria. Restriction in using TB vaccine is for the people who are in a high expose are for TB vaccine but with that it will reduce the level of lives vaccine can save in the high risk area.
M72/AS01E vaccine is a more promising vaccine than the currently used vaccine BCG, where M72/AS01E increase the rate of saving life of children as well as adults. The researches and experts comment that the vaccine must also tested to people who are affected from HIV and to the people of other countries for long term purpose. The vaccine to cure TB is a much-needed vaccine which should develop in the future to save more of the lives to end the threat of TB from the world.