NASA and SpaceX are the most famous companies in the field of space science. Those two are American countries. Today I would like to tell you about a significant point in the history of space science by an Asian country. That is India. From this article, I would like to tell you about the chandrayaan 2 nd mission. The last level of this mission didn’t succeed, but most of the plans had been successful. Still, the chandrayaan probe is rotating through an eclipse way around the moon. Through the high-resolution cam in the chandrayaan probe, there can be taken many essential images of the moon. ISRO is the company that designed the chandrayaan program.
The Indian Space Research Organisation is known as the ISRO. This is the Bengaluru in India. Do you know who’s idea is this ISRO? The founder of this company is Mr. Vikram Sarabhai. Vikram Sarabhai is a great scientist who is known as the father of Indian space. ISRO is not the first name of this organization established by Vikram Sarabhai. In 1962 the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was started. 1969 onwards, it was called ISRO. There is a part in the chandrayaan probe that was named as Vikram land. That part was named to respect Vikram Sarabhai, the founder of ISRO. The former chairperson of ISRO is Mr. Kailasavadivoo Sivan.
The high cost is needed to make spacecraft. SpaceX is following a method to minimize the damage. As you know, SpaceX makes reusable rockets, but in ISRO, the engineers are using a low-cost way to reduce the cost. ISRO is not using reusable rockets like SpaceX. The main goal of the ISRO is to find where the water in the moon and to find the correct location. The scientists of the ISRO had found there is water on the moon by the mission chandrayaan 1. Then they planned their second mission to find the location where the water can be found, but as I told above, they didn’t succeed with their plan. Therefore they made another plan. It is chandrayaan 3. The scientists of ISRO think that it can be finished in 2024.
The vision of this company is ” harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research and planetary exploration.” In ISRO, there is about 16,815 staff at present. ISRO is the company that made the first space rocket in India. Aryabhata is a satellite built by ISRO.
Before I move to my main point chandrayaan – 2, I would like to give some brief information about other space crafts by ISRO. The smallest rocket that made out by ISRO is SLV. Satellite Launch Vehicle is known as SLV. Through SLV, there can be 40kg transported to the lower orbit of the earth. There is another rocket called ASLV that is more powerful than the SLV. ASLV is the short form for Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle. 180kg of load can be transported to the lower earth orbit through ASLV. PSLV is powerful than the ASLV. PSLV is the short term for Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. Through PSLV, 3800kg of mass transported to the lower orbit. In other than that about a mass of 1200kg can send to the geosynchronous transfer orbit. The most powerful rocket is the GSLV. GSLV is the short abbreviation for GeoSynchronous Launch Vehicle. Through this 5000kg can be sent to the lower orbit of the earth, while 2700kg can be sent to the geoSynchronous transfer orbit. ISRO has the motivation to succeed in other plans too. Some of them are to produce a reusable rocket, a space station, interplanetary probes. As well as that chandrayaan 3 is the present project. ISRO planned to send rockets to Mars, Venus, and other nearby objects.
Then I think I told more about the ISRO the Indian organization. Now it is time to move chandrayaan – 2.
Chandrayaan – 2
What are chandrayaan and Pragyan?
Do you know what the meaning of chandrayaan is?
Sometimes you don’t know with this word because this is a Sanskrit word. Sanskrit is a type of language that is used in India. In Sanskrit, chandrayaan referred to the moon. As you know, this is the two and missions planned by ISRO. This was launched on 22nd July 2019 from the Satish Dhawan space center. Lunar orbiter, the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan lunar lover are the parts of chandrayaan – 2. Chandrayaan – 2 was launched to space by GeoSynchronous satellite launch vehicle mark iii. Here the Pragyan is also a Sanskrit word that meant as the knowledge as I said that Vikram lander is named after the Vikram Sarabhai, the founder of ISRO.
Solid rocket boosters are used in this rocket. A simple technology uses in the designing of this space rockets because of that the expenditure on the production is low. The solid rocket booster burned more time than the scientists think. In the middle of August 2019, chandrayaan – 2 entered the moon’s gravitational field. ISRO scientists planned to land Vikram lander on 7th September by reducing its speed. Even if they planned to land in the southern hemisphere that scientists are assuming the water on the moon is there. Other than that, scientists plan to hold the research throughout 14 earth days that is equal to one day of the moon.
The Indian prime minister Narendra Modi was also inside the control center of the day that the final step of the Vikram lander will plan to land. Then the Indian prime minister told the scientists to get courage and try for sometimes as well as that the prime minister congratulated the dedicated team. However, the scientists will find the problem for connection failure then they will correct it in their next rocket.
What happened during the final step?
All the plans of the scientists occurred as per plan, unfortunately above to the 2km, the connection between the control Centre and the Vikram lander. So at the final step of the program get vanished. ISRO and NASA tried their best to make communication with the Vikram lander, but they couldn’t do that. But chandrayaan spacecraft is still revolving around the moon through an eclipse way. Many scientific pieces of equipment will be useful to scientists in this rocket. Two of them are high-resolution cameras and x-ray spectrometers. The high-resolution camera can be used to take smooth photographs of the surface. The x-ray spectrometer can be used to analyze the composition of the natural objects on the moon like stones and soil.
The total time allocated for this mission is about 7.5 years. ISRO designed four main engines to the rocket, but later, they added additional engines to it. I told earlier about the goals of ISRO. Other than that, mineralogy, topography, and pieces of evidence about hydroxyl and water are the other goals of ISRO. India is trying to develop these space science activities as well as satellite services because they need to upgrade their country services like weather forecasting, Internet services, business management, natural disaster forecasting, and satellite communications. Other than that, such fields like agricultural fields, the military camp that can be used.
As I mentioned above, ISRO planned to finish chandrayaan – 3 within 2024. I am sure that India would succeed in their plan. We will see it in the future.