Nowadays, our home galaxy became a newsmaker. Am I right?? I think so. Because I had seen many interesting details about the milky way galaxy. Then today, even though I am going to tell you another new detail. I think you can remember the facts that I told you about the milky way. Plus, I am expecting to recall some of them here. Would you like to see them?? I am working as you wish. First of all, we will move to the main topic.
This above fact was discovered inside of the halo of the Milky Way. What is this halo??? What are the features of the halo?? I am also feeling restless when I am reading about that. Wait some time. You can know about that. However, this discovery is about the gases contained within the Milky Way’s halo. Inside that, there are varying chemical substances or chemical compositions. Plus, there is a higher temperature than scientists thought.
Scientists thought there are hot gases inside this above halo. Plus, they thought the gases is depending on the mass of the galaxy. With the results of the above test, their ideas turned fully upside down. Do you know what the instrument that helped scientists to find the above facts is?? That is the XMM Newton. That is by ESA’s. That means the European Space Agency. The details by the XMM Newton turned the path of the scientists. Before this experiment, scientists believe that there is only one gas included in the halo. But after that, they found out that there are three gases. They are some components of hot gases. This is the initial time that found such a thing in the whole space. That means in other galaxies too. Because multiple gas components don’t consist of other galaxies.
Then after that, the temperature range is from 10000 to one million degrees. But that temperature can go high upto 10 million degrees. They stated that the reason for such a higher temperature could be the winds occurring with the stars, actually with the disc of stars. We can consider stars, especially in our home galaxy.
In the above, I told you that XMM Newton used for the above observations. But from that instrument, two main parts used for the test. You can see the details about that when I am describing that instrument. Not only the above gases but also some other objects had discovered during the above investigation. That is known as the blazar.
What is thar blazar??? Have you heard that before?? That is an active place. Through that part of the light is emitting. That part has the power that you can’t imagine. This above light ray travelled via our home galaxy. That is as the X-ray light. The above rays remained for a long time, such as two days. But those cannot be detected easily. That is about the blazar rays.
Scientists look for the oxygen, but they have found out other elements. Even though there are elements that are heavier than the helium too. Some of them are nitrogen, neon, and iron. Those are the heavier metals. Even the ratio of the iron is lesser than the others. This is an unexpected thing for all. Finally, I have to tell you an idea about the expert about the above investigation. That is,
“These observations provide new insights into the thermal and chemical history of the Milky Way and its halo, and challenge our knowledge of how galaxies form and evolve,”
The above quote is by Norbert Schartel. He is a scientist in the ESA XMM project. As I promised you in the above now, we will see about the milky way galaxy. Until now, you have gathered more facts about the Milky Way. Please add these too.
Our home galaxy
You know it is a milky way. This is a disk-shaped galaxy. There is a star band around it. When someone looks for this galaxy, he can see the only light band. But it is not actually a light band. It is made out of a combination of many stars. Stars are placed as a pattern of a band. In 1610 Galileo Galilei was the first person that resolve the individual stars. Most people think that all stars are included in this milky way. But later, it proved wrong because there are many other galaxies as the milky way in space. This is proved by Edwin Hubble.
As well as that scientists assume that there are 100-400 stars that are included in this milky way galaxy. Do you know the diameter of this galaxy? Can you think about that? We measure the distances from meters and kilometres we can measure very long distances in kilometres even. But we don’t measure those long distances from the measurement light-years. Light Years is the unit to measure the distances in space. The diameter of this galaxy even measured by light-years. It is about 150,000-200.
That the above details are related to the milky way galaxy or else that is our home galaxy. Then we will see the next topic. That is about,
The interesting part of our home
The above interesting part is known as the galactic halo. Usually, this part exists as Spherical shape. The surface area of the above natural creation is very spread. There are some components in the above part. They are as dark matter halo, stellar halo, and the galactic corona. There cannot be any connection with the above natural objects and the other components except the halo in the other galaxy. That is with the elliptical way.
Then we will see the details of them one by one. Among them, the first one is the,
Near to the disk galaxies and elliptical galaxies, these types of halos can be found out. These are contained with the globular clusters. And the metal consistency and the dwarfs are in the RR Lyrae. Those stars in our star halo are aged about 12 billion years. Those are very old when compared with the other stars. They are metal, poor places. Some of the stars are showing the radial velocity dispersion. Do you know the value of the radial velocity dispersion??? That is about the 200km/s. I have another question. Do you know the value of the lower average velocity of rotation ?? That is about 50 km/s.
These above details are related to the stellar halo. Then we have to see the next type. That is,
In this activity, the gases are distributing at a wide range of the field. There is a method that can find out about that. That is through the distinct emission spectrum. Plus, the components that can be identified through the X-ray spectroscopy also detected.
These above facts are about the galactic corona. Then we will pay our attention to the next topic. That is,
Dark matter halo
This is extended to very far outward, even from the visible components. The mass of dark matter is greater than any matter in the galaxy. It is related to the evolution and the formation of the galaxy.
These above are some brief descriptions of the above three facts. Then we will move back to the main topic.
Would you like to know the formation of the above halos?? I’ll tell you that even briefly. This is a natural phenomenon. That is according to the cold dark matter model. Through my previous article, I have described the cold dark matter model. Usually, halos are consisting of dark matter and the other baryonic matter.
This is the end of the details related to the halo of our home galaxy. I had told you that I would tell you about that. Then we will turn to the next topic. That is,
There is another name for the above. That is the high throughput x-ray spectroscopy mission. Initially, that observatory launched on the 5th of December 1999. That was through the Ariane 5 rocket. That is the second plan of the horizon 2000 mission. The name of the project is given by the famous person, sir Issac Newton. This mission to observe the sources that x-ray sources. The above mission allocated for the type of x-ray astronomy. This mission is planned for about ten years. But that was initially planned for two years.
These above spacecraft operate until the year 2020 because that is maintaining good health. According to recent details, that will extend up to 2022. There is another will introduce for the support of the above mission. That is ATHENA. That can be known as the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics. This is a part of a planned mission for the 2015 – 2025. That will release to space 2028.
Do you know which observatory looking similar to this above??? That is NASA’s Chandra x-ray observatory.
You know single spacecraft cannot perform such a task. For that, there are some more instruments need. Therefore I am going to tell you some of them from here.
European photon imaging cameras
There are two MOS CCD cameras in here. Especially there are six placed filter wheels. The above cameras can be used to find the x rays with low energy. Apart from the above, there are pn CCD cameras are included. Those cameras are used to detect the x rays with high energy. There is a special procedure to record the details collected by the above cameras.
Then the next part is,
Reflection grating spectrometers
The above part is to analyse the given results and get some idea about the presence of the elements of the above objects. That is to build x-ray spectral data.
Those are some main instruments that consist of the above instrument. Other than them, the optical monitor is another instrument.
Then we come to the last section of the article. I told you more details about the above subtopics. These above facts will help to improve your knowledge.